TAPWater & Science Standards

Each activity in the TAPWater curriculum supplement has been reviewed by educators who aided the PA Department of Education with the draft forms of the state’s Academic Standards for Environment & Ecology and Science & Technology. Each activity in this manual contains a list of those standards that are met by performing the activity or conducting the experiment. The following standards are covered, either completely or partially, in this manual: (which can be used directly from this web page or can be downloaded in sections in printable format from the appropriate links)


Science & Technology

Section 3.1 Unifying Themes – Download Here

3.1.4 Grade 4

A. Know that natural and human-made objects are made up of parts.

  • Identify and describe what parts make up a system.
  • Describe the purpose of analyzing systems.

B. Know models as useful simplifications of objects or processes.

  • Identify different types of models.
  • Identify and apply models as tools for prediction and insight.
  • Apply appropriate simple modeling tools and techniques.
  • Identify theories that serve as models (e.g. molecules).

E. Recognize change in natural and physical systems.

  • Recognize change as fundamental to science and technology concepts.
  • Examine and explain change by using time and measurement.
  • Describe relative motion.
  • Describe the change to objects caused by heat, cold, light or chemicals.

3.1.7 Grade 7

A. Explain the parts of a simple system and their relationship to each other.

  • Describe a system as a group of related parts that work together to achieve a desired result (e.g., digestive system).
  • Explain the importance of order in a system.
  • Distinguish between system inputs, system processes and system outputs.
  • Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems.
  • Apply system analysis to solve problems.

B. Describe the use of models as an application of scientific or technological concepts.

  • Identify and describe different types of models and their functions.
  • Apply models to predict specific results and observations (e.g., population growth, effects of infectious organisms).
  • Explain systems by outlining a system’s relevant parts and its purpose and/or designing a model that illustrates its function.

C. Identify patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.

  • Identify different forms of patterns and use them to group and classify specific objects.
  • Identify repeating structure patterns.
  • Identify and describe patterns that occur in physical systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.

Section 3.2 Inquiry and Design – Download Here

3.2.4 Grade 4

A. Identify and use the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.

  • Distinguish between a scientific fact and a belief.
  • Provide clear explanations that account for observations and results.
  • Relate how new information can change existing perceptions.

B. Describe objects in the world using the five senses.

  • Recognize observational descriptors from each of the five senses (e.g., see-blue, feel-rough).
  • Use observations to develop a descriptive vocabulary.

C. Recognize and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.

  • Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
  • Design an investigation.
  • Conduct an experiment.
  • State a conclusion that is consistent with the information.

3.2.7 Grade 7

B. Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations.

  • Measure materials using a variety of scales.
  • Describe relationships by making inferences and predictions.
  • Communicate, use space/time relationships, define operationally, raise questions, formulate hypotheses, test and experiment.
  • Design controlled experiments, recognize variables, manipulate variables.
  • Interpret data, formulate models, design models, and produce solutions.

C. Identify and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.

  • Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
  • Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
  • Design an investigation with limited variables to investigate a question.
  • Conduct a two-part experiment.
  • Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
  • Communicate appropriate conclusions from the experiment.

Section 3.3 Biological Sciences – Download Here

3.3.4 Grade 4

A. Know the similarities and differences of living things.

  • Identify life processes of living things (e.g., growth, digestion, react to environment).
  • Know that some organisms have similar external characteristics (e.g., anatomical characteristics; appendages, type of covering, body segments) and that similarities and differences are related to environmental habitat.
  • Describe basic needs of plants and animals.

B. Know that living things are made up of parts that have specific functions.

  • Identify examples of unicellular and multi-cellular organisms.
  • Determine how different parts of a living thing work together to make the organism function.

3.3.7 Grade 7

A. Describe the similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things.

    • Describe how the structure of living things help them function in unique ways.
  • Account for adaptations among organisms that live in a particular environment.

Section 3.4 Physical Science, Chemistry & Physics – Download Here

3.4.4 Grade 4

A. Recognize basic concepts about the structure and properties of matter.

  • Describe properties of matter (e.g., hardness, reactions to simple chemical tests).
  • Know that combining two or more substances can make new materials with different properties.
  • Know different material characteristics (e.g., texture, state of matter, solubility).

C. Observe and describe different types of force and motion.

  • Recognize forces that attract or repel other objects and demonstrate them.
  • Describe various types of motions.
  • Compare the relative movement of objects and describe types of motion that are evident.
  • Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or the background (e.g., geographic direction, left, up).

3.4.7 Grade 7

A. Describe concepts about the structure and properties of matter.

  • Identify elements as basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down chemically.
  • Distinguish compounds from mixtures.
  • Describe and conduct experiments that identify chemical and physical properties.
  • Describe reactants and products of simple chemical reactions.

Section 3.5 Earth Sciences – Download Here

3.5.4 Grade 4

A. Know basic landforms and Earth history

  • Describe Earth processes (rusting, weathering, erosion) that have affected selected physical features in students’ neighborhoods.
  • Identify various earth structures (e.g., mountains, faults, drainage basins) through the use of models.
  • Identify the composition of soil as weathered rock and decomposed organic remains.

C. Know basic weather elements.

  • Identify cloud types.
  • Identify weather patterns from data charts (including temperature, wind direction and speed, precipitation) and graphs of the data.
  • Explain how different seasons effect plants, animals, food availability and daily human life.

D. Recognize the Earth’s different water resources.

  • Know that approximately three-fourths of the Earth is covered by water.
  • Identify and describe types of fresh and salt water bodies.
  • Identify examples of water in the form of solid, liquid and gas on or near the surface of the Earth.
  • Explain and illustrate evaporation and condensation.
  • Recognize other resources available from water (e.g., energy, transportation, minerals, food).

3.5.7 Grade 7

A. Describe Earth features and processes.

  • Describe the processes involved in the creation of geologic features (e.g., folding, faulting, volcanism, sedimentation) and that these processes seen today (e.g. erosion, weathering crustal plate movement) are similar to those in the past.
  • Describe the processes that formed Pennsylvania geologic structures and resources including mountains, glacial formations, water gaps and ridges.
  • Distinguish between examples of rapid surface changes (e.g., landslides, earthquakes) and slow surface changes (e.g., weathering).

B. Recognize Earth resources and how they affect everyday life.

  • Identify and locate significant Earth resources (e.g., water, rock types, oil gas, coal deposits) in Pennsylvania.
  • Explain the value and uses of different Earth resources (e.g., selected minerals, ores, fuel sources, agricultural uses).
  • Compare the locations of human settlements as related to available resources.

C. Describe basic elements of meteorology.

  • Explain and illustrate the processes of cloud formation and precipitation.

D. Explain the behavior and impact of the Earth’s water systems.

  • Explain the water cycle using the processes of evaporation and condensation.
  • Describe factors that affect evaporation and condensation.
  • Compare the effect of water type (e.g., polluted, fresh, salt water) and the life contained in them.
  • Identify ocean and shoreline features (e.g., bays, inlets, spit, tidal marshes).

3.5.10 Grade 10

D. Assess the value of water as a resource.

  • Compare water sources of potable water (e.g. wells, public systems, rivers) used by people in Pennsylvania.
  • Identify the components of a municipal/agricultural water supply system and a wastewater treatment system.
  • Relate aquatic life to water conditions (e.g., turbidity, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen levels, pressure).
  • Assess the natural and man-made factors that affect the availability of clean water (e.g., rock and mineral deposits, man-made pollution).